Numerical analysis of internal flow phenomena in a backward curved centrifugal fan

Khema Theint, War War Min Swe, Aung Kyaw Soe, Aung Ko Latt
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Centrifugal fans are widely used in applications for the ventilation of air to induce pressure and drive the flow medium. The centrifugal fans are applied not only to produce fresh air but also to absorb toxic gases from the environment. Complex flow patterns are present in the centrifugal fan’s impeller and volute casing. The flow patterns of a backward curved centrifugal fan are the main topic of this study. The flow in the impeller blade channels needs to be better understood to optimize the design and performance of any turbomachine. This work uses numerical analysis to examine the flow patterns inside a backward curved centrifugal fan employed in the ventilation system. Computational fluid dynamic code serves as the foundation for numerical analysis, ANSYS-CFX 21.2. The fan under investigation in this study has an operational speed of 1500 rpm, a pressure head of 4 m, and a volume flow rate of 3 m3min-1. A change in mass flow rates has a direct impact on the pressure and velocity distributions in the centrifugal fan’s impeller passageways. By varying the mass flow rates, the numerical results have demonstrated the three-dimensional properties of the flow, particularly in the impeller blade passageways and the casing. The fan casing contains the high-pressure region, while the impeller intake is the low-pressure area. The area within the volute tongue in which flow recirculation occurs. The backward curved centrifugal fan has a static efficiency of 93% and a total efficiency of 96% at the specified volume flow rate. This suggested methodology can be used to identify fluid flow constraints in the volute casing, comprehend internal flow patterns in the backward curved centrifugal fan, and enhance centrifugal fan performance.

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